Last night I was dreaming. What were my dreams about? I’ve no idea. I slowly emerged from sleep, through that strange phase where dreams and realities blend with one another, opened my eyes, knew I was awake. At that point I could still remember what I had dreamed. Ten minutes later my dream was forgotten. When I try to remember it now, I can’t.
I remember some of my dreams longer than others. Often I can recall a dream for an hour or two – but the details become more and more blurry. Occasionally, in the case of a particularly consistent dream with a clear story-line I can still tell Anne or the children at lunchtime what I dreamed. But as the day goes by, the memory fades. Even if I say to myself, “That was an interesting dream – I must try to remember it”, I can’t. I don’t have a clear memory of any dream I’ve ever had. I know that I dream regularly about certain people – particular relatives; some church members; old friends. And I dream about certain places – my secondary school; the house where I spent my early childhood; a church-building now demolished. But I couldn’t tell you what I’ve dreamed about those people or places.
I know that in some of my dreams, I’ve thought, “this is familiar – I’ve been through this before”. But I don’t know whether I’ve actually had the same dream on repeated occasions. Or whether that feeling that I’d had the dream before was just part of the dream! In any case, I can’t remember even what those familiar dreams were all about.
Some dreams leave me feeling frightened and shaky. I wake sweaty and trembling. Others leave me feeling very peaceful and happy. Others again leave me feeling guilty. But I don’t remember any of them.
I’m not unusual in being unable to remember dreams. Researchers tell us that there are lots of people like me who remember nothing of their dreams. On the other side there are people who remember nearly everything they dream – just as they remember real-life events. Those are the two extremes – and there are people who can be found at every point between. Some people remember certain types of dreams but not others. Some people find that a dream that they had forgotten can come back to them if something happens to trigger the memory.
Most dreams: Insignificant
The fact is that most dreams are insignificant. They are just confused imaginings in the sleeping mind. You don’t need to remember them and you don’t. Once you’re awake you realise that the things you were dreaming about had no basis in reality and you get on with the business of the day. The Bible often talks about dreams as passing and insignificant. Moses declared that humanity is “like a dream, like grass that is renewed in the morning: in the morning it flourishes and is renewed; in the evening it fades and withers” (Psalm 90:5-6). Dreams are short-lived and transient, he declares – and so is human life. Another psalmist compares wicked men to dreams: “like a dream when one awakes, O Lord when you rouse yourself, you despise them as phantoms” (Psalm 73: 20). He takes it for granted that we should recognise our dreams as “phantoms” – unreal and irrelevant – and that we should “despise” them.
Some Christians put a great emphasis on dreams. They try to remember their dreams; they write them down each morning before they can forget them; they try to unravel what all the strange things they see in their dreams might mean; they expect God to show them the future through dreams; they look to God to give them guidance in their dreams. If they see frightening things in their dreams, they worry; if they see happy things, they are comforted.
Well I don’t. I accept what the Bible says – that most dreams are just “phantoms”. They don’t give you any clue as to what’s going on in the real world; they don’t give you any hint about what God’s planning to do in the future. “A hungry man dreams, and behold, he is eating and awakes with his hunger not satisfied… a thirsty man dreams, and behold, he is drinking and awakes faint, with his thirst not quenched…” (Isaiah 29:8). Yes, in a dream I may imagine anything. I may imagine that I’m eating or drinking or that I’m the Emperor of China. It doesn’t mean that it’s actually happening or is going to happen.
Learning from my dreams
Most of my dreams are based on things that have actually happened to me, or that I’ve read about, or that people have said to me. It’s as if my sleeping mind takes all those experiences, and breaks them into bits and rearranges them in a thoroughly confused way. Sometimes I’ll tell Anne when I wake up what I’ve been dreaming about, and she can tell me straightaway why I’ve had that dream.
“I’ve just dreamed that an giant airliner landed in our back garden”. “Well, that’s not surprising. You were watching that Youtube clip about Sheik Ibrahim’s private aircraft which he keeps in his grounds”.
“I’ve just dreamed that I was sitting my O levels again, and I ran out of ink and nobody would lend me any”. “Well you were telling the children yesterday how important it is to be prepared before an exam, and last night you were searching for your fountain-pen”.
Some dreams are based on more long-term concerns or fears. Psychologists tells us that if we’re worried about something, but we’re refusing to think about it while we’re awake, our worries may surface in our dreams. I think that’s probably true. If I dream about an unpleasant confrontation with someone I know, it may well be that there is some issue that I need to sort out with him, and I’m putting it off. If I dream that I’m in hospital and being operated on, it may be that I’m more worried about my health than I like to admit.
So, if I wake up in the morning and can remember anything of my dreams, they may give me hints about things that have been on my mind or situations that I need to resolve. And then I need to face up to those things. I need to admit to myself that I’m worrying about this situation, or running away from that duty. And then I can spread those concerns out before the Lord, unburden myself, entrust the situation – whatever it might be – to him and get on with doing what I need to do.
What about those dreams that leave me feeling guilty or ashamed? Maybe, let’s say, I wake up from a dream in which I’ve had a violent fight with somebody and beaten him up. How should I react then? Is it sinful even to have such a dream? Well, I can comfort myself that I’ve not chosen to have the dream – it’s certainly not deliberate sin. But I still have to say that it’s a sign of the sinfulness of my heart. I can’t believe that an unfallen man – Adam before he fell – would have had dreams of violence and brutality. I can’t believe that the Lord Jesus ever had such dreams. So, if I have such a dream, then I must grieve for the sin that has affected all Adam’s children, and which taints my dreams.
But I must do more than that. I must search myself and ask, “have I been harbouring angry or hating thoughts about that man? The rage I felt against that man in my dream – is that my real feelings towards him showing through?” “Search me O God and know my heart! Try me and know my thoughts”(Psalm 139:23). And it may be that when I search myself and examine my feelings, I can say with a clear conscience, “No, I’ve got no hatred in my heart towards him. This is just the muddle that comes in dreams”. And then I can ask God not to allow such troubling dreams to invade my sleeping mind again. Next time I lie down to sleep, I’ll say to myself, “I will both lay me down in peace and sleep for you LORD alone make me dwell in safety” (Psalm 4:8).
But if I search myself and I find that I do have angry or hating thoughts against the man I dreamed about, what then? Well then I must repent, and plead for cleansing through the blood of Jesus. I must commit myself afresh to love that man, and start praying for his good. And I must ask for the Holy Spirit to keep me from sinful thoughts or feelings, awake or asleep.
For many Christians, it’s not hatred or anger that invades their dreams and leaves them feeling guilty and ashamed when they awake; it’s lust. Their dreams include sexual elements, often relating to specific people. Well, I would give just the same counsel as in the case of anger or hatred. Vividly sexual dreams are not in themselves sinful. They’re not voluntary, and at certain stages of life (especially for boys in the teenage years) they are almost inevitable. But if a believer does experience such dreams, he should ask whether it is a sign that he has been indulging in lustful thoughts when he’s awake. Has he been reading unhelpful stories or watching unhelpful films? Again, if you find that your conscience is clear, give thanks. And if you find that in some way you’ve opened your heart to lust, repent and believe that the blood of Christ cleanses us from all sin.
I should add this: don’t spend a lot of time trying to remember or analyse such vivid dreams. The very act of remembering them may actually stir up the feelings you’re trying to confess and put to death. Lengthy and detailed confessions can be unhelpful. Better simply to say, “Lord I know that what I dreamed last night came from the sins in my heart. Please forgive me and cleanse me, for Jesus’s sake”.
Does God speak through dreams?
We’ve said firstly that most dreams are insignificant. We’ve recognised secondly that some dreams may be an indicator of underlying issues that need to be dealt with. But that leaves a third question. Are there dreams in which God speaks directly to us and reveals things that we couldn’t know otherwise?
Well, there’s no doubt that there are lots of episodes in the Bible where God did use dreams to speak to people directly. I can think of at least twenty such episodes. In a dream God warned Abimelech king of Gerar that he had sinned by taking Abraham’s wife Sarah (Genesis 20:3). In a dream Jacob saw a stairway between earth and heaven (Genesis 28:12). In another dream he was told to leave Laban’s home (Genesis 31:10-13). God warned Laban in a dream not to obstruct or harass Jacob (Genesis 31: 24). Joseph was shown his destiny in two dreams (Genesis 37: 5, 9). Later, he was able to interpret the dreams God sent to Pharaoh’s cup-bearer and his baker (Genesis 40: 5). Then he was able to interpret Pharaoh’s own dreams (Genesis 41: 5, 6). A Midianite was sent a dream during the night before Gideon’s attack on the Midianite camp (Judges 7:13). The Lord appeared to Solomon in a dream and asked him what one gift he would choose (1 Kings 3:5). Daniel interpreted two dreams that God sent to Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 2:36, 4:5). Daniel himself had an extraordinary dream in which he saw the whole course of future history (Daniel 7:1). Joseph the carpenter was told in a dream to take Mary as his wife (Matthew 1:20). The wise men were told in a dream not to return to Herod (Matthew 2:12). Joseph was told in dreams to take the baby Jesus to Egypt (Matthew 2:13); then to return to Israel (Matthew 2:20); then to settle in Galilee (2:22). And though we’re not told that the dream was sent by God, we may add the fact that Pilate’s wife “suffered much because of him – Jesus – today in a dream” (Matthew 27:19).
So it is clear that God can speak – and has spoken – to people in dreams, at least in certain special instances. If you look at each of these episodes, it’s very obvious that the people who had these dreams knew that they were special dreams with great significance. Unlike my dreams, they could remember these dreams in all their detail. Somehow they knew that these dreams were not just jumbled up memories or a reflection of their worries. They were sure that all the details had meaning, and if they could not discern the meaning themselves, they searched for someone who could tell them.
But was God constantly – or even, frequently – speaking to people in dreams? Hardly. Twenty or so instances across the whole of Scripture is not many. And these are recorded as special, noteworthy, remarkable events. God seems to have given few people such reliable dreams, and raised up even fewer people who could interpret them reliably. Pharaoh’s cupbearer spoke with awe about the young Hebrew he had met in prison who could interpret dreams. Until Joseph was summoned, there was no-one in all Egypt who could interpret Pharaoh’s dreams. Likewise, Daniel is introduced to us as someone who had “understanding in all visions and dreams” (Daniel 1:17). Remember, there was no-one else in all Babylon who could interpret Nebuchadnezzar’s dreams.
It’s striking that many of the dreams were given to unbelievers rather than to believers. Abimelech, Pharaoh’s cupbearer, his baker, the king of Babylon, pagan astrologers, Pilate’s wife. God used dreams to warn these people, to trouble them, to awaken them – and then he brought believers across their paths through whom he could speak to them in clearer and more direct ways. Apart from the events surrounding Jesus’s birth we have no instance in the New Testament of God communicating with a believer through dreams. We know that apostles such as Simon Peter, John and Paul had visions in which God revealed wonderful things to them. But from the time when the Lord Jesus took up his work on earth, we have no example of God speaking to a sleeping believer in a dream.
So be cautious. When Christians tell you dramatic stories about the things God has shown them in dreams, you’ve got every reason to be sceptical.
Predicting the future
Believers should never claim on the basis of a dream that they know what’s going to happen. There are countless examples – especially in the last fifty years – of Christians who have announced that God has shown them the future in a dream. And again and again, they – or those who have believed them – have been left disillusioned or humiliated. Shall I give you an example, almost at random? Here is Pastor Willie Soans talking about “a dream given to him at 5.10 am on Sunday 7th September 1998” during the Powys Prayer Conference in Wales. Mr Soans “is part of an apostolic team responsible for 15,000 believers in the New Life Church in Bombay, India”. And in his dream he saw “revival” coming to Wales.
“In Wales the Father’s house is locked. Someone locked the Father’s home and threw away the keys. Over the years that have passed by, the keys have gone deeper and deeper, as the dust of the ages, the dust of tradition and formalism has settled over the keys to the Father’s home. So much so that the ground above the keys has become hard and solid and, at times, impenetrable.
Then I saw a great shaking beginning to start. It as as if a great earthquake came upon the land – this was very sudden and quick. The earth opened up, and deep down in the ground, still shining and clean were seen the keys. The moment the keys came to be seen the shaking stopped…
After the shaking stopped, I saw that the keys were too deep and too far for one man to go down and get it. If anyone would try that, they would get killed – it was so dangerous. So I saw men come together. It seems they already knew what to do. They slowly formed a human chain. Each man carefully holding the others hand, the formed a long chain till the line reached the bottom and I saw an insignificant man pick up the keys. There was great joy as this happened and people began to become ecstatic and dance.
When I saw the keys I was very surprised. I had never seen these kinds of keys before. They were not easy to carry…” *1
He describes each key in detail and then he declares: “The Lord is about to do something that is beyond our imaginations for Wales. This is indeed the ‘Kairos’ time for this Nation”.
Well, that was 1998. And the people who believed that “the Kairos (crisis) time” had arrived are still waiting…
Looking for guidance
Even more important, they should never think that their dreams are a sure guide by which to make decisions. There are many, many passages in the Bible that warn God’s people against relying on dreams rather than on God’s word for guidance:
“If a prophet or a dreamer of dreams arises among you and gives you a sign or a wonder, and the sign or wonder that he tells you comes to pass, and if he says, ‘Let us go after other gods,’ which you have not known, ‘and let us serve them,’ you shall not listen to the words of that prophet or that dreamer of dreams. For the LORD your God is testing you, to know whether you love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul…” (Deuteronomy 13:1-3).
If someone says he’s had a dream and then tells you that he knows something will happen because he’s seen it in his dream, you might think, “well that proves that his dream is a reliable guide”. “No”, says Moses. “Even if his predictions come true doesn’t mean he can be trusted. If he tells you to do something that’s against God’s written commands, you must ignore him”.
Jeremiah was constantly warning his hearers against trusting and following dreams:
“For thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Do not let your prophets and your diviners who are among you deceive you, and do not listen to the dreams that they dream, for it is a lie that they are prophesying to you in my name; I did not send them, declares the LORD” (Jeremiah 29:8-9).
“I have heard what the prophets have said who prophesy lies in my name, saying, ‘I have dreamed, I have dreamed!’ How long shall there be lies in the heart of the prophets who prophesy lies, and who prophesy the deceit of their own heart, who think to make my people forget my name by their dreams that they tell one another, even as their fathers forgot my name for Baal? Let the prophet who has a dream tell the dream, but let him who has my word speak my word faithfully. What has chaff in common with wheat? declares the LORD.” (Jeremiah 23: 25-28).
When we want to know what it’s right for us to do in any situation, there is only one safe way of finding out. We must search the Bible – the written Word of God – understand the principles it teaches, discover what God has commanded, and put it into practice.
Believers have been led into all sorts of foolish and immoral behaviour by paying attention to dreams instead of trusting God’s commands in the Bible.
So my advice to believers when it comes to dreams, is simple. Be very cautious. If you can learn something about yourself and your hidden worries, thoughts and feelings, that’s fine. But even then God’s book is a far more reliable guide to what’s going on in your heart. And never look to dreams to show you what’s going to happen or what you should do in any situation.
Unbelievers and their dreams
Well, I can’t see any reason why not. And many sane, cautious believers can look back to the days before they were converted and remember a dream which either set them seeking God or encouraged them along the way.
One of the most striking examples I can think of is John Newton’s dream of the lost ring.
Here is his account (the language has been updated):
“The scene was the harbour of Venice where we had just been. I thought it was night and that it was my turn to stand watch on the dock. As I was walking to and fro by myself, a man brought me a ring with the express order to keep it carefully. He assured me that, while I preserved that ring, I would be happy and successful. But if I lost it or parted with it, I could expect nothing but trouble and misery. I accepted the present and the terms willingly, knowing that I would indeed care for it and gloating that now I would have my happiness in my own keeping.
Then a second person came to me and, seeing the ring on my finger, asked some questions about it. I readily told him its value, and he said he was astonished that I was so gullible in expecting such effects from a mere ring. He argued with me for some time and then urged me to throw the ring away. At first I was shocked at such a suggestion, but he kept telling me how foolish I was. Then I began to consider his reasons and to doubt the original story. At last, I pulled it from my finger and dropped it over the ship’s side into the water. At the same instant, a terrible fire burst out from a range of mountains some distance behind the city of Venice. I saw the hills as distinctly as if I were awake, and they were all in flames.
Too late, I realized how foolish I had been. My tempter, with an insulting sneer, informed me that all the mercy of God reserved for me was lodged in the ring I had wilfully thrown away. He said I would have to go with him to the burning mountains and that all the flames I saw had been kindled on my account. I trembled in great agony.
But the dream continued. As I stood there, hopelessly condemning myself, a third person – or the same one who brought me therein the first time (I’m not certain which) – came to me, demanding to know why I was grieving. I told him plainly, confessing that I had ruined myself wilfully and deserved no pity. He blamed my foolishness and asked if I would be any wiser the next time, if I had my ring back again. I could hardly answer; I thought it was gone for good. Before I even had time to answer, this unexpected friend plunged into the water just at the spot where I had dropped the ring. He returned in a moment, bringing it with him. The moment he came on board, the flames in the mountains were extinguished, and my evil seducer left me. With joy and gratitude, I went up to my kind deliverer with my hand opened to receive my ring again. But he refused to return it. He said, ‘If you were to be entrusted with this ring again, you would soon bring yourself into the same distress. You are not able to keep it, so I will preserve it for you. Whenever you need it, I will produce it in your behalf.’
I awoke astonished. I could hardly eat, sleep or work for two or three days…” *2
Was Newton converted as a result of the dream? No, but it played a part in preparing him for his conversion years later. At the time he was sure that God has spoken to him warning him that he was in danger of throwing away God’s mercy. But he soon forgot the lesson and returned to a life of debauchery. It was years later that Newton found Christ – the friend through whom God’s mercy would be guaranteed to him forever.
Dreams cannot save anyone. Paul tells us plainly, “Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved. How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? And how are they to believe in him of whom they have never heard? And how are they to hear without someone preaching? And how are they to preach unless they are sent?.. So faith comes from hearing, and hearing through the word of Christ.” (Romans 10:13-17). God’s way of saving his elect is that he sends someone to tell them the gospel – the message of Christ. They hear the message; they believe; they call on the name of the Lord; they are saved.
The most remarkable example I’ve come across in recent years has been witnessed by trusted friends in Kosova. Here is Paul Davies’s summary of what has happened in the village of Tërstenik.
The story begins with a middle-aged villager named Driton, a former member of the Kosovo Liberation Army. When at school, Driton had talked with a Christian girl and had been given a Bible of his own to read. But in the years that followed, Driton had shown little evidence of any spiritual concern. However, that was to change…
“Despite political uncertainty and economic fragility, the Kosova of Driton’s middle years is stable and peaceful compared to the turmoil of the turn of the century. But it is not without its anxieties. For Driton and his community, not least in their concerns is the growing influence of Islamist forces and the threat this poses for their children’s generation. As they considered these issues, Driton and other community leaders fell upon a novel and surprising solution. They would become a Christian village. Unsure of what this might mean, they were convinced that a Christian label would help to deter Muslims from targeting their people. How to change and what needed to be done remained undecided. Orthodoxy with its Serbian associations was out of the question but perhaps Roman Catholicism (known from childhood to Driton’s wife) might be the answer. We can’t really tell where their discussions might have gone next because at this point God intervened in an extraordinary way. Driton had a dream!
Driton’s dream was quite simple; a man who was clearly identified in his dream as Femi Cakolli (Tsakolli) wrote on a piece of paper ‘Jesus Loves You’ and gave it to him. There was however one small problem – Driton had no idea who Femi Cakolli might be. Sharing the dream with his wife and now firm in the view that it meant something important, Driton began to ask after anyone with that name. It was one of his brothers who completed this particular part of the puzzle. Femi Cakolli, he learned, is a pastor in Prishtina. How he came by this information is a remarkable story in itself but suffice to say for the moment that Femi’s faithful work in offering Christian literature to the people of Prishtina had led to his identification. Now Driton contacted Femi and eventually came to see him, outlining the plan to become a Christian village. The request was simple; ‘will you come to our village of Tërstenik and explain Christianity to us?’
Again, what followed invites us to marvel at God’s goodness rather than explain exactly what happened. Femi preached the gospel to them – unsurprising as it’s been his burden and passion these many years. Maybe thirty people assembled in Driton’s garden on that occasion, many of them members of his extended family. In the days that followed there would be further opportunities and the impact on lives went far beyond any nominal acceptance of the label ‘Christian’. As the summer of 2015 came to its close; as more than twenty were baptised, it became clear that God had done something remarkable. A village that only months before had been barren and, Femi recalls, resistant to the gospel in his much earlier evangelistic forays, now boasted a witness of perhaps fifty men and women, boys and girls, meeting regularly to worship and enjoy Bible ministry. And, because God’s mercies know no bounds, the nearby village of Fushticë and others beyond have begun to feel the effects of what can only be described as an outpouring of God’s grace”.
I have met Femi and have every reason to think of him as a man of utter integrity. Paul has visited Tërstenik and spent time with Driton. He is confident that Driton is telling the unembellished truth. Why should I doubt Driton’s story?
Iranians – and me
Of course, we have heard some testimonies closer to home. In recent years we have met a number of Iranians who are open to the gospel and want to find out about the Lord Jesus. Several of them have told me that their interest in Christ began as the result of a dream. Living in Iran, they had no opportunity to hear the gospel. But they are sure that God spoke to them in a dream and they began to search for the truth. Some believe that Jesus himself appeared to them in the dream. They tell me that it was their dreams that brought them to the UK. They knew from their dreams that they needed to find Jesus Christ – they had no opportunity to do so in Iran so they fled to the West and began to look for someone who could tell them about Christ.
It isn’t only the Iranians whom I’ve met who tell such stories. Ashton Stewart, an American evangelist who has worked for years among Iranian exiles writes this:
“The Spirit of God is touching Iranians around the world. That means that God has already gone before you in witnessing to the Iranians in your city.
As you grow close to Iranians you will hear more and more stories about the dreams they may be having. You may find these stories hard to grasp but I have found that almost every Muslim convert that I know has had some type of dream that he understood to be a revelation of Christ. These dreams seem to awaken a hunger for Christ. I have come to see them as God’s calling His own out of the world because we, His church, have failed to go to the Muslim world as we were commanded to go. Still today only 2% of the western mission force is serving among the Muslims who make up 20% of the world’s population. The approach I take with these dreams is to celebrate them and then invite them to get to know Jesus through reading the New Testament.
Over the years I have catalogued the types of dreams that Iranians are having about the Lord. Most of them have a rescue motif. The person is drowning and a hand comes down into the water and saves him. A person is ill and a person in radiant white robes enters his room and tells him he will be healed and he is….
God is calling these dear people and we need to be sensitive to the work of the Holy Spirit and be ready to follow up with good Biblical discipleship”. *3
I think Stewart is wise. He doesn’t pooh-pooh the stories these folk tell him about their dreams. But nor does he assume that just because they’ve had such dreams, these folk are now saved. Instead he rejoices in the fact that they seem to have “a hunger for Christ”. And he knows that now he must help them to get to know Jesus through reading the New Testament. In the same article he goes on to point out that – despite their dreams – they may never have thought of themselves as sinners needing a Saviour:
“You will need gently to go to Genesis and show him the story of the Fall and explain that he may well be a good person in comparison to other human beings but in God’s sight all have sinned and he has inherited his sin from Adam and Eve. You will have to show him that all human beings are sinners not because they sin; but they sin because they are sinners”.
Of course, what he’s saying doesn’t apply only to Iranians. We may meet many other folk – from many different countries – who tell us that God has awakened them through a dream. We may find their stories impressive and moving, or we may not. It doesn’t really matter. The fact is that our responsibility remains the same. We rejoice if they show any hunger to know God. We begin to show them that they are sinners. We begin to show them that Jesus Christ is the perfect Saviour for sinners. That’s it in the end. If people want to tell me about their dreams, that’s fine… providing that in the end their dreams lead them to Scripture and to Christ.
“Continue in what you have learned and have firmly believed, knowing from whom you learned it and how from childhood you have been acquainted with the holy Scriptures, which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, equipped for every good work” (2 Timothy 3: 14-17).
Does it worry me that I can’t remember any of my dreams? Not a scrap. I have the Scriptures, they’ve led me to faith in Christ, and now they can equip me for every good work. That’s enough for me.
*1 Willie Soans: Keys of Revival for Wales.
*2 This is excerpted from “John Newton: Letters of a Slave Trader” a paraphrase by Dick Bohrer of Newton’s autobiography, “Out of the Depths”.
*3 Ashton T Stewart, Jr: The Keys to the Iranian Heart.